The first contact with an institutionalized educational system can be a test for some of the children. Problems may arise due to the inadequacy of the fixed school program, the difficulties of accepting another authority than the family or of integrating into a diverse group. Most of the time, however, it is about problems in carrying out tasks in different subjects. In this case, it can be about certain learning disorders.
Learning disorders affect up to one in ten children worldwide. Although recovery is difficult, the earlier they are identified, the easier they can be improved. The main learning disorders are: dyslexia, dyscalculia and dysgraphia.
Dyslexia is a learning disorder materialized by reading difficulties. At its base is a non-neurological dysfunction that results in problems with reading the text, recognizing the letters and reading slowly, with mistakes of the various paragraphs. The reading disorder is not influenced by the level of education or insight of the child and is not a situation caused by lack of motivation, exercise or preparation.
Dyslexia can be influenced by the genetic factor and has origins in the fetal development period or in the early part of childhood. The action of harmful factors on pregnancy, preterm birth or with complications and traumas can generate dyslexia. Another cause is the contracting in the first years of life of certain diseases that affect the central nervous system or that are manifested by febrile states with high values. Forcing left-handed children to use right-handed writing is another risk factor for dyslexia.
Discalculia is a learning disorder related to the ability to perform mathematical operations. For example, understanding and finding out the result of the actions of addition, subtraction, etc. it requires considerable effort, there are difficulties in learning and writing numbers, as well as the use of mathematical signs and in graphical representation of information. Basically, the arithmetic skills are below average for the age and intellectual level of the respective child. The appetite for the human sciences and the rejection of the exact ones cannot be considered disqualification. Like dyslexia, dyscalculia is a neurological disorder and has the same possible causes.
To complete the mathematical calculations, children with dyscalculia will most often resort to helpful solutions at hand. For example, counting on your fingers, groups information according to certain criteria and uses associations to correlate information. In some cases, dyscalculia is also accompanied by attention problems.
Dysgraphia is the third neurological disorder that causes learning disorders, manifested through learning problems in written communication. Most children have a difficult start in terms of writing, but in the case of those affected by dysgraphia, problems persist after the accommodation period.
Dysgraphy means messy writing, with different size letters, with large spacing. Also, the words are spelled incorrectly although their correct form has been specified. Therefore, dysgraphia is both a difficulty of visual-spatial ordering, as well as of processing and transposing information. The problems of organizing letters and numbers is not influenced by the lack of spatial references, such as a white sheet instead of a dictation booklet, but the use of graded lines for exercise is helpful.
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