Hyperthyroidism is a medical condition that describes all the symptoms and signs associated with excessive secretion of thyroid hormone. These cause a pathological increase in the level of the thyroid hormone in the blood, which can lead to serious medical problems - heart, bones, eyes, etc. The disorder is also known as hyperactive thyroid. There are several forms of treatment available for hyperthyroidism.
What are the causes of hyperthyroidism?
There are 2 main causes that lead to hyperthyroidism:
- almost 95% of the cases are based on the disease Basedow-Graves (a hereditary disease that consists of the excess secretion of thyroid hormone);
- thyroid nodules are a second major cause of hyperthyroidism;
- a less frequent cause is considered inflammation of the thyroid gland, called thyroiditis;
- and in the spectrum of rare causes, pituitary gland tumors, thyroid cancer, etc. are included.
What are the symptoms?
Common signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism include:
- heat intolerant;
- breathing problems;
- frequent chairs;
- goat (thyroid husband);
- abundant sweating;
- flatulence and frequent bloating;
- accelerated heart rate;
- trembling hands;
- hair loss (hair is fine and soft);
- weight loss.
How is hyperthyroidism treated?
There are several therapies available to treat hyperthyroidism. The most appropriate is chosen according to the age, causes, symptoms, health status and severity of the disease.
Among the most used treatments are anti-thyroid drugs and radioactive iodine. If several manifest symptoms of hyperthyroidism are detected then the doctor will first use anti-thyroid drugs. These have effect only in the case of mild hyperthyroidism.
Interactive iodine is used in cases of hyperthyroidism caused by Graves disease over 50 years of age or with thyroid nodules. This therapy is contraindicated if the age is less than 20 years, if the patient is pregnant or wants to become pregnant as soon as possible or if she is breastfeeding.
In parallel, medicines can be given to help alleviate the symptoms present - sweating, agitation, dryness of the eyes, rapid heartbeat.
Surgery can also be used, but only in very rare and serious cases. Doctors rarely resort to this practice and only if they are dealing with a very large goose or a thyroid nodule that releases far too large amounts of hormone. The intervention is called thyroidectomy.
What are the complications of hyperthyroidism?
Abnormal thyroid hormone levels influence metabolism. They tend to accelerate it. Metabolism is made up of chemical and physical processes that have the role of transforming food into energy. When it is overloaded, the body's functions are also stressed and medical problems arise.
If left untreated, this disease can cause serious complications:
- heart problems (one of the most serious conditions - heart rhythm disorder called atrial fibrillation and other problems such as congestive heart failure - not enough blood to circulate in the heart);
- fragile bones - disease leads to weak, fragile bones and even osteoporosis - bone health depends on calcium and other minerals - the overactive thyroid interferes with the body's ability to incorporate calcium and other minerals into the body;
- eye problems - especially for people with Graves' disease; it is characterized by bulbous, red or swollen eyes; sensitivity to light and blurring of the ability to see or through double vision;
- skin disorders - also in people suffering from Graves' disease, skin problems called dermopathies that cause red skin, especially swollen legs and legs;
- Thyrotoxic crisis - abrupt intensification of the symptoms of hyperthyroidism leading to fever, rapid pulse and even delirium.
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