In detail

Hemolytic anemia

Hemolytic anemia

Hemolytic anemia is a blood disorder in which red cells (red blood cells or red blood cells) are destroyed faster than the spinal cord can produce them. In other words, this disorder occurs when the spinal cord cannot compensate for the loss or destruction of red blood cells caused by the disease. The term for red blood cell destruction is hemolysis.

What are the causes of hemolytic anemia?

Hemolytic anemia can be caused by inherited or acquired disorders. The causes of this disorder depend on the type of hemolytic anemia you may have. There are 2 major types of disorder, each with its own causes as follows:

Intrinsic hemolytic anemia

In this case of hemolytic anemia, the destruction of red cells is caused by a defect or anomaly inside the cells. This is usually inherited as is sciatica and thalassemia. These diseases produce red cells that do not survive as much as normal red cells.

Extrinsic hemolytic anemia

In this category the red cells produced are healthy, but they are destroyed later, being trapped in the spleen, destroyed by infections or by certain drugs. It is also called autoimmune hemolytic anemia and may have the following causes:

  • infections - hepatitis, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, typhoid, E. coli or streptococcus;
  • drugs - penicillin, antimalarial medication, acetaminophen leukemia or lymphoma;
  • autoimmune disorders - systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, different tumors.

What are the symptoms of hemolytic anemia?

Each person may manifest the disease differently. Many of the symptoms are common to other blood disorders, so proper medical control is mandatory. Here are the most common symptoms:

  • abnormal pallor (lack of skin color);
  • dark color of urine;
  • fever;
  • jaundice;
  • dizziness;
  • weakness;
  • confusion;
  • intolerance to physical activity;
  • enlargement of the spleen and liver;
  • tachycardia;
  • murmurs the synonym.

How is the diagnosis made?

Hemolytic anemia is discovered during a medical examination by a routine blood test. In addition to a comprehensive medical history and physical examination, diagnostic procedures for this type of anemia may include additional blood tests and other evaluation procedures to check for enlarged spleen and liver.

What is the treatment for hemolytic anemia?

Hemolytic anemia is quite difficult to treat. The therapeutic trials aim in particular at treating the causes of the disease. The treatment for this disorder is personalized and established by the doctor based on several factors consisting of:

  • age;
  • general state of health;
  • medical history;
  • the cause of anemia;
  • the degree of disease evolution;
  • tolerance to certain drugs, procedures, therapies;
  • expectations of the evolution of the disease;
  • patient preference, etc.

Therapy may include:

  • vitamin and mineral supplements;
  • changing the diet;
  • drugs;
  • treatment of the causative factor;
  • splenectomy - surgery to remove the spleen.

In general, the increased administration of vitamin B6 and folic acid is aimed at preventing the complications of biliary and urinary lithiasis. Other times, it may be referred to glucorticoid hormone (cortisone) therapy. It has the role of destroying the red blood cells found in the spleen. In case of need, the doctors can use transfusions with erythrocytes or, in very serious cases, they can use the stem cell transplant from a compatible donor.

Tags Folic acid Children health Streptococcal infection