Vaccination against childhood diseases starts from the first months of life. Babies are immunized by vaccination at 12 and 16 weeks. There are some vaccines against several bacilli or bacteria in a single dose such as DTP (the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine).
It is one of the most common childhood diseases. It has increased infectivity, with a 10-day incubation period and is transmitted by air, through saliva and nasal secretion. Measles can start as a gout and with high body temperature.
The eruption usually occurs after 2 days. Complications are common: bronchitis, bronchiolitis, otitis or croup.
In a few cases, nervous system disorders such as encephalitis may occur. Children are usually vaccinated every 13 months against measles, rubella and mumps.
Also read: All about measles or measles
Meningococcus is a bacterium that causes meningitis and septicemia (bloodstream infection). Due to severe damage to the brain and nerves, meningitis is a fatal disease. It is transmitted by air.
Immunization of infants against meningitis C is done 12 to 16 weeks after birth. It is a separate dose from the DTP / IPV / Hib vaccine, which will be given at 12 months.
Also read: Meningitis in children: causes, symptoms, treatment
Pneumococcus is involved in the production of meningitis, septicemia and pneumonia. One in ten cases of meningitis is caused by this bacterium.
Pneumococcal meningitis, unlike C meningitis, produces irreversible health changes such as: deafness, epilepsy and other neurological problems.
The pneumococcal vaccine that is made against this bacterium is given to infants between the ages of 8 and 16 weeks, with a second dose at 13 months.
Also read: Pneumococcal meningitis can be prevented by vaccination
The polio virus has a high affinity for nerve tissue in the brain and spinal cord and can induce paralysis. It has not yet been eradicated from underdeveloped countries. It can be transmitted by contact with the mucus, saliva or faeces of an infected person, having an incubation period of 21 days.
The polio vaccine is included in the DTP / IPV / Hib vaccine that is made against diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough. It is made at 8, 12 and 16 months and with booster during the preschool and adolescent period, between 13 and 18 years.
Rubella is a mild disease manifested by fever, small rash and inflammation of the lymph nodes. It has a long incubation period between 14 and 21 days and the complications in the child are minor.
The danger is for pregnant women who get rubella in the first 10 weeks of pregnancy, the disease can induce fetal malformations and disorders of the brain and heart.
The incidence of congenital effects has decreased over time, due to the use of the trivalent vaccine for measles, rubella and mumps.
Also read: Differences between rubella, measles and chicken pox in children
The symptoms of tetanus are based on painful muscle spasms. The disease can often be fatal. It has an incubation period of 21 days.
Untreated old wounds that come into contact with the tetanus bacillus found on the ground can become infected. It can also be transmitted through animal bites, farmers and gardeners being the most susceptible. Tetanus vaccination is done in 5 doses using the DT vaccine (against diphtheria and tetanus) and immunization lasts a lifetime. It is done at 8, at 12 and 16 months, at 7 years and at 14 years.
Also read: Tetanus: symptoms, complications, treatment
Whooping cough (pertusis)
It is an infectious infectious disease that is transmitted orally, with a 10-day incubation period and with a cold-like onset that worsens over time by accentuating laryngeal spasms. These distressing symptoms may continue for several weeks.
Also read: whooping cough (donkey cough) in children
Complications such as pneumonia, vomiting, weight loss and, rarely, brain disease or death are associated. The vaccine to be administered is anti-diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP).