In detail

Physical development

Physical development


By growth we mean the quantitative accumulations of the bodily dimensions. The development and maturation represent qualitative notions regarding the differentiation of structure, composition and cellular function, particular to each tissue. The rate of growth, development and maturity depends on hereditary, hormonal and environmental factors.

  • hereditary factors - influence the growth rate and the definitive values ​​of the growth parameters, according to the genetic programs.
  • hormonal factors - between these growth hormone is indispensable for regulating skeletal growth and the deficiency of this hormone is expressed by slowing the growth and maturation processes, the excess determines the acceleration of growth without maturation (gigantism).
  • environmental factors - nutrition - an essential element in the development of the growth process.
  • socio-economic factors - influence the growth of the child's body through the way of life, elementary habits, cultural traditions in close connection with the nutritional factors.
  • psychic and emotional factors contribute significantly to comfort through the family environment, the affective climate, the quality of relationships between parents and children. The mental stress caused by the unfavorable environment negatively influences the growth process.
    In the first year, the average weight is 9.5kg and at 3 years of 15kg. For approximating the average normal weight at different ages some formulas can be used:
    3-12 months: (age + 9 months) / 2

    1-6 years: (age (years) x 2 + 8) / 2
    6-12 years: (age (years) 7-5) / 2
    The height increases from 74 cm. the 92cm. After the age of 1 year the approximate average value of the height in centimeters can be found from the formula: Age (in years) x 6 + 77. At 3 years the growth rate is lower than the previous period. The segments of the body have uneven growth rates and the general appearance of the body changes. Segmentation reports between the trunk and limbs show that the limbs grow faster than the trunk to puberty, after which the growth rate is reversed.
    It is important to know that the figures resulting from the measurements of anthropometric parameters are compared with the values ​​of the reference standards that take into account the geographical area, sex, age and the environment of origin (rural / urban). In Romania, these measurements were developed by the Bucharest Institute of Hygiene, these are reference standards reflecting the level of physical development at different age groups.
    The maturing elements are represented by the relative development of the facial massif with the gradual disappearance of the particular appearance of the newborn. In relation to the thoracic perimeter which at birth is smaller than the cranial one, there is an equalization of the two perimeters towards the age of 1 year, after which the cranial perimeter remains progressive after the thoracic one. Ossifications occur at the level of the skull by closing the fountains, spine, skull, limbs.
    The muscular and ligament system develops which will lead to greater agility of the body. There is progression in brain development from 980 gr. at the 1st it reaches 1,100gr. at 3 years. The correlated activity of different brain regions and areas develops greatly and different innate reactions begin to condition. (at 2 and a half years the sphincter control appears).
  • Tags Child development