What are immunizations?
Immunizations, also called vaccinations, protect children and adults from certain diseases. Immunization consists of administering a vaccine that contains fragments of the microbial germs involved (bacterial or viral strains) or small amounts of it. The vaccine stimulates the person's immune system to produce antibodies, which can subsequently recognize and destroy the pathogenic germs upon exposure. Sometimes, immunization does not completely protect against the onset of the disease, but it significantly reduces its severity. Immunizations are usually given as injectables. Some vaccines are given in a single dose, others require multiple repeated doses over time.
Why should we get vaccinated?
Vaccinations ensure the protection of adults and children against various diseases. In addition, they reduce the transmission of the disease to other people. Immunizations caused a significant decrease in the frequency of outbreaks. Immunization costs less than the treatment of the disease against which it is protected, has very few serious adverse effects and is often required at school or kindergarten.
What side effects can occur after vaccination?
Adverse effects of vaccines are generally minor, if they occur eventually. These may include:
Serious adverse reactions to vaccines, such as high fever (above 40.3 ° C) or dyspnea, are rare. If the child has an unusual reaction, he or she should contact the family doctor. The risk of a serious complication of the disease is far greater than the risk of having an adverse reaction to vaccination. It is recommended to report severe post-vaccine reactions. The only vaccines that were mentioned due to high safety concerns were the 1976 flu vaccine for pigs and the rotavirus vaccine in 1999.
Research by international health services is ongoing to better understand the type of reactions that can be caused by vaccines and how to reduce the risk of complications, which is already minimal.
Vaccine efficiency in disease prophylaxis
Although no vaccine is 100% effective, most childhood vaccines are 85-95% effective for children receiving them. Some individuals do not develop complete immunity even if given the vaccine. If these people are exposed to the disease, they can become infected. However, the symptoms are usually milder as a result of previous vaccination.
The standard child immunization program includes vaccines for:
Influenza vaccine is not indicated for children younger than 6 months. It is recommended for:
|First day of life||Hepatitis B|
|The first 4-7 days||Hepatitis B (Hep B)|
|2 months||Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-hepatitis B vaccine (DTP-Hep B) and oral polio vaccine (VPO)|
|4 months||Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) and oral polio vaccine (VPO)|
|6 months||Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-hepatitis B vaccine (DTP-Hep B) and oral polio vaccine (VPO)|
|1 year||(DTP) Oral polio vaccine (VPO)|
|1 year - 1 year and 3 months||Rujeolic-rubeolic-oreion (RRO) vaccine|
|2 years and 6 months - 3 years||Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine|
|7 years||Pediatric diphtheria-tetanic (DT) vaccine, Rujeolic-rubeolic-oreion (RRO) vaccine|
|9 years||Oral polio vaccine (VPO)|
|14 years||Pediatric diphtheria-tetanic vaccine (DT), rubella vaccine (Rub)|
|18 years||Hepatitis B (Hep B)|
Newborn vaccine tags