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Abortion

Abortion

Abortion is premature termination of pregnancy.When pregnancy is interrupted by a natural cause it is miscarriage or loss of pregnancy.
When measures are taken to stop pregnancy, medication or surgery is therapeutic abortion or product / induced abortion.

The most common way to interrupt a pregnancy is through surgical abortion. However, drug abortion is widespread especially after the approval of the use of RU-486 (Mifepristone) in 2000. Regardless of the method used, surgical or medicinal, after abortion, regular checks are required at specialist and family planning. The checkup includes a physical and pelvic exam to see if healing is appropriate.

Reasons why women choose abortion

The most common reasons are:

  • unsuccessful contraception - more than half of the women who did abortion used a contraceptive method when they became pregnant;
  • the inability to care for a child;
  • interrupting an unwanted pregnancy;
  • preventing the birth of a malformed child or with serious illness - these fetal problems are often diagnosed only in the second trimester of pregnancy in routine investigations;
  • pregnancy as a result of rape or incest - in this situation there are about 13,000 women every year;
  • physical or mental illness that endangers the life of the pregnancy if the pregnancy is sustained.

    Illegal abortion

    Abortion is legal, with some restrictions up to 24 weeks of pregnancy. Many states require women to think 24 hours after being informed about the implications of an abortion.
    Illegal abortion is abortion performed by staff without proper medical training and presents a much higher risk of complications than that performed by qualified personnel.

    Pregnant teenager

    About 30% of pregnant adolescents choose abortion. In about 60% of women under the age of 18 who have had an abortion, at least one parent knows about this abortion and supports the daughter's choice.
    The most common reasons adolescents choose abortion are:
  • they are not mature enough to have a child;
  • they are not financially capable of raising a child;
  • the concern that a child will change their lives and compromise their future (and that of the child's) - many of the young mothers are no longer able to obtain the level of education and work needed to avoid raising the child in poverty.
  • Abortion medicines

    Medication abortion, meaning the use of medication to stop a pregnancy, is 98% effective if it is done within the first 9 weeks of pregnancy. As the pregnancy nears the end of the first trimester, the medication is no longer sufficient to induce abortion. In this case, a surgical abortion is also required to obtain a complete abortion (removal of all traces of fetal tissue from the uterus).
    The therapeutic plan in a medical abortion includes a first medical consultation and medication administration, followed by 3-4 days after the second consultation and medication (according to another therapeutic plan, the second medication administration is also allowed at home).

    Vaginal bleeding lasts on average 14 days. After about 2 weeks after the second medical consultation a check is mandatory to see if the evolution is appropriate.
    Medical follow-up before and after abortion includes physical examinations and laboratory tests, informing the patient about the possible consequences of abortion, self-care instructions, information about possible accusations for which to be presented to the specialist and family planning.
    The drugs currently used to induce abortion are:

  • Misoprostol - this hormone induces labor by dilating the cervix and by producing uterine contractions. Misoprostol can be given alone, but it is more effective if it is combined with Mifepristone or Methotrexat for first trimester abortions
  • Mifepristone and Misoprostol - Mifepristone, also known as Mifeprex or RU-486, blocks the use of progesterone, which stops the growth of the placenta, dilates the cervix and prepares the uterus for labor. Misoprostol triggers contractions and clears the uterus of fetal tissue. This treatment has an efficacy between 95-98% for pregnancies up to 9 weeks
  • Methotrexate and Misoprostol - Methotrexate stops placental growth, being less effective than Mifepristone; Misoprostol triggers contractions and clears the uterus of fetal tissue. This treatment has an efficiency between 95-99% for pregnancies of up to 7 weeks.

    Surgical abortion

    Surgical abortion interrupts the pregnancy by surgically removing the contents of the uterus. Depending on the age of pregnancy in weeks, different procedures are used for surgical abortion.
    Medical follow-up before and after surgical abortion includes physical examinations and laboratory tests, informing the patient about possible consequences of abortion, self-care instructions, information about possible accusations for which to be presented to the specialist and family planning.
    The surgical techniques used for pregnancy in the first trimester (week 3-12) are:
  • manual suction or mechanical suction performs suction through a tube of the entire fetal tissue from the uterus
  • cervical dilation and uterine curettage, a more surgical technique than before, is used to clean the uterus with a sharp instrument. This method is usually reserved for cases where by complete aspiration the uterus has not been completely cleansed.
  • The surgical technique used for pregnancies in the second trimester is cervical dilation and uterine evacuation, which is actually a combination of aspiration, dilatation and curettage, using surgical instruments such as forceps to remove fetal tissue and placenta from the uterus. This method is more commonly used for second trimester pregnancies than inducing abortion (medication) because it presents a lower risk of complications.
    The possible non-surgical method in pregnancy in the second trimester is the induction of abortion using medication that produces uterine contractions followed by expulsion of the fetus from the uterus. Due to the increased risk of complications this method is rarely used.
    Source: Sfatulmedicului.ro

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