Oreion is a specific human disease, infectious and contagious, produced by the urlian virus - Myxovirus parotidis, characterized by unsupportive inflammation of the salivary glands and other tissues and organs such as the pancreas, testes, nervous system, but much rarer; The healing is spontaneous and determines a lasting immunity, in life, however, as described and re-illnesses.
The entry gate is the upper airway mucosa where the virus multiplies and spreads hematogenously to the rest of the organism.
The receptivity is general, but the contagiousness is small, requiring prolonged and close contact.
The source of infection is the sick man.
Contagiousness starts from the last 2-6 days of incubation and ceases after about two weeks of clinical evolution. The transmission of the virus is done from the patient to a receptive person as aerogens.
The average incubation is 18 days. The most frequent onset is sudden, with some general phenomena, chills, discrete arthralgias and myalgia, sickness, headache and incompetence.
In severe forms of the disease vomiting, otalgia, epistaxis and even redness of the neck appear.
The period begins with the first appearance of inflammatory pathognomonic signs and lasts until all local or general signs of the disease have receded.
Parotitis it is the most frequent form, it appears unilaterally, and in 50-70% of cases it becomes bilateral; It starts with a moderate embarrassment, especially during swallowing, and then within a few hours, the swollen, diffuse, elastic and slightly painful swelling of the gland is implanted, parotid swelling usually lasting 7-10 days.
Submaxilita accompanies parotiditis in 5% of cases and manifests by painful swelling of the submandibular region.
Pancreatitis appears relatively rarely as a clinical manifestation, as a painful digestive syndrome in the upper abdominal floor associated with dyspeptic disorders with nausea, repeated vomiting, dehydration and digestive intolerance. In these cases, there is an increase in amylases in the urine and in the urine, with pancreatitis evolving into a total clinical cure.
Orchita urliana it occurs with a frequency of up to 25% affecting boys after puberty, manifesting with swelling and volume increase of the testicle and infiltration of the scrotum skin.
Urlia meningitis occurs relatively rarely with headache, photophobia, vomiting, redness of the head, and if it has the encephalitis component it is accompanied by drowsiness, convulsions, agitation.
The positive diagnosis is based on clinical, epidemiological and anamnestic data.
Serological tests are not for regular use; the hemagglutinoinhibition reaction and the complement fixation reaction are performed, using paired sera, harvested at least 10 days apart, for dynamic antibody titration research.
The mumps are usually isolated at home, the hospitalization being done in special forms. There is no etiological treatment. Bed rest is compulsory throughout the illness; diet should be appropriate to the heat curve and digestive tolerance.
Medication treatment - antithermic, antiallergic, sedative - it is made only if necessary, and the anti-inflammatory is applied in case of orchid or meningitis.
Isolation of the patient at home is compulsory, entry into the community is not allowed before 14 days from the start.
Vaccination leads to lasting immunity in 95-98% of cases.
Dr. Dana Paduraru
Emergency Clinical Hospital for Children "Grigore Alexandrescu"