Unvaccinated people can get the virus through kissing, sexual intercourse or blood. Hepatitis B is a liver disease caused by a virus that is most commonly transmitted sexually, although it does not cause changes in the genital tract.
There is a period, between one month and six months after the infection, in which the virus cannot be detected by analysis, but can be transmitted to other people, not only by sexual means, but also by blood, non-sterilized medical instruments and from the mother to fetus. In recent years, to reduce the number of cases, children are vaccinated against hepatitis B at birth.
If there are lesions in the mouth, the virus can also be transmitted by kissing. It is very easy to get intrafamilial, through the commonly used objects, such as nail scissors or toothbrush (there are still cases), because they can come in contact with blood, warns Dr. Florin Caruntu, primary infectious diseases doctor at the Institute "Matei Bals" from Bucharest.
The protection is complete only after the last dose of vaccine
Not all infected people get the disease, but they transmit the virus. In this case, the sexual partner of the healthy carrier should be vaccinated at time 0, then at one month and at 6 months.
Starting with the first dose, the condom should be used, as the vaccine offers protection against the virus only after the last dose and is only effective for 5-7 years. After this period, the individual must revaccinate, in order to maintain their immunological protection.
It will not cause the infection and will not transmit the virus, even if it comes in contact with it. Hepatitis B can go unnoticed, and is sometimes masked as a false cold. It can be discovered by chance in analyzes. "The manifestations, when they exist, are fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, yellowing of the skin, dark colored urine and discolored stools," explains Dr. Florin Caruntu.
Those who have had hepatitis B do not get a second disease
Of the healthy carriers, 5-10% remain with the virus and make the infection, and 10% of them have the virus, do not do the disease, but it is good to have twice a year tests, says Dr. Caruntu. After an acute hepatitis, the body can get rid of the virus due to the immune system (in the first 6 months after the acute phase) and it has antibodies all the life.
In people with low immunity - who have had, for example, cancers or transplants - the virus can multiply greatly. The virus confined to the liver can in time cause chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. The latter, in an advanced phase, requires liver transplantation.
Source: The Event of the Day